More than any other spirits Gin can be considered as a canvas, especially on highly rectified neutral spirits. Over the years, many different styles of Gin have been developed.
The United Kingdom produces mostly dry Gin, primarily from column stills. British gins tend to be high proof (90° or 45% ABV) and citrus-accented from the use of dried lemon and Seville orange peels in the mix of botanicals. British gins are usually combined into mixed drinks.
A Gin like Hendrick’s, where the flavourings for example rose and cucumber, are added after the last distillation can’t pretend to the name of Dry gin.
London Dry Gin is the dominant style of within what is generally named English Gin.
London dry Gin appeared soon after the continuous still was invented in 1831. This new still made a purer spirit possible, encouraging English distillers to try an unsweetened or dry style (Sugars had been used to mask the rough and unpleasant flavours that could show up in older pot still production).
This style is made with fermentable mash consisting of 75% corn, 15% barley malt, and 10% other grains, and is flavoured with a number of spices, herbs and botanicals. The distinctive London dry gin flavour comes primarily from juniper berries, but many other items are used, including orange peel, cardamom, cassia bark, coriander, and angelica root.
Originally, the phrase "London dry Gin" specified a geographic location; that the Gin was made in or near London. Now, the term is considered to be generic, London Dry gin can be made anywhere on earth, as the word is used to describe a style of Gin for which flavourings may be added only during the last distillation and must be natural. The ethyl alcohol must be of high quality and the gin must contain at least 70% alcohol after distillation. No colouring may be added after distillation, though sugar may be added to the end product (but no more than 0.1g of sugar per liter). After distillation nothing else can be added except water.
Plymouth Gin is another style of within what is generally named English Gin. It is relatively full-bodied (when compared to London Dry Gin). It is clear, slightly fruity, and very aromatic. Originally the local Gin style of the English Channel port of Plymouth, modern Plymouth Gin is nowadays made only by one distillery in Plymouth, Coates & Co., which also controls the right to the term Plymouth Gin.
Old Tom Gin is the last remaining example of the original lightly sweetened gins that were so popular in 18th-century England. The name comes from what may be the first example of a beverage vending machine. In the 1700s some pubs in England would have a wooden plaque shaped like a black cat (an "Old Tom") mounted on the outside wall. Thirsty passersby would deposit a penny in the cat’s mouth and place their lips around a small tube between the cat’s paws. The bartender inside would then pour a shot of Gin through the tube and into the customer’s waiting mouth.
Old Tom style gins still exist and are even having a revival these days. It is generally (or it was) slightly sweeter.
Genever is the Dutch style of Gin.
Genever is distilled from a malted grain mash similar to that used for whisky, named moutwijn. Many of these gins are aged for one to three years in oak casks. Genevers are distilled at lower proof levels – and in pot stills- than English Gins (72-80 proof or 36-40% ABV is typical) and are generally fuller in body.
There are two types of jenever: oude (old) and jonge (young). This is not a matter of aging, but of distilling techniques.
Oude ("old") Genever is the original style. It is straw-hued, relatively sweet and aromatic with maltey flavours. Production is closed to the whisky production, also in the proportion of malted barley (at least 15% malted barley). Addition of sugar is limited to 20 grams per liter. The resulted spirit can be aged in wood.
Jonge ("young") Genever has a drier palate and lighter body. The neutral spirit must have no more than 15% malted barley and no more than 10 grams sugar per liter.
Korenwijn is like a Oude style but with more sugar content, more ageing in cask, and more moutwijn content. It contains from 51% to 70% malt wine and up to 20 g/l of sugar.
Genever-style gins are produced in Holland, Belgium, France and Germany.
The European Union regulations specify that only the alcohol made in Holland or Belgium, two northern French departments and two German federal states can use the name jenever/genever/genièvre.
Recognized for its historic and cultural contribution, the European Union protected genever with 11 appellations or AOC of which most are exclusive to Belgium.
Genever is produced without discontinuity since the 1500s. Juniper flavoured spirits have been made by Bols since 1575 when the company has been established in Amsterdam.
Source: Wikipedia great Jenever article !!!
Germany produces Genever-style Gins called. German Gin is usually served straight up and cold.
Three most famous styles:
Steinhaeger is an older style flavoured only with juniper. The name is derived from the city of Steinhagen, the only place where it is permitted to be produced. Steinhäger is typically sold in long brown clay pot (Steingut) bottles and in glass bottles made to look like earthenware.
Wachholger is a double distilled gin flavoured made only with crushed fermented junipers. (Wachholder is the German word for junipers.)
Dornkaat, produced in the North Sea coast region of Frisia is both a style and a brand name. This spirit is lighter in body and more delicate in flavour than both Dutch Genever and English dry Gin.
Spain produces a substantial amount of Gin, in the London Dry style from column stills. Most of it is sold for mixing with tonic water.
Contrary to common sense that associates England and high gin consumption, Philippines and Spain are bigger Gin consuming countries. Spain is the largest Gin market in the EU and third largest in the world and the Philippines is the world's largest Gin market with San Miguel being by far the largest brand. In global terms, Philippine gin accounts for some 43% of the world gin market.
Source: IWRS, 2013
American Dry Gins tend to be lower proof (80° or 40% abv.) and less flavourful than their English counterparts. This rule applies even to brands such as Gordon’s and Gilbey’s, which originated in England.
In addition to the required juniper, which defines Gin, these new American Gins are flavoured with a wider array of regional botanicals, regional fruit, citrus or floral ingredients, as well as herbs and spices.
For example Ben Distillery in Oregon harvests wild juniper berries from the Pacific North West. The Washington Island in Wisconsin is also home to indigeneous juniper used in the making of Death Door Gin.
„Amid this innovation, we can also report that barrel-aged gins are increasingly exciting with for example St. George’s Dry Rye “Reposado”—a term usually reserved for aged Tequila.
In another sign of the times: Local Wine and Spirits, a Chicago-based producer and distributor, is petitioning the government to include “American Dry” as a bona fide gin category.
“It will be the tip of the spear in moving towards greater appellation in our craft spirits,” LWS says. “We can envision the day when regional gins like Sonoma Coast Gin, Rocky Mountain Gin, Southwest Chaparral Gin all exist and create a tapestry of style that is as unique as the people who live in various regions of our country.”
Source : Wine enthusiast HERE